Hot steel forging
The plastic deformation of metals and, in particular, the hot forging of steel is now a consolidated process for most modern companies, but it is one of the oldest processes in the history of mankind.
It was in the Iron Age that man first began to understand that by bringing the material to a high temperature, it would become malleable and could be formed into elementary shapes.
Over the various ages, forgers beat hot iron using hammer and anvil to produce swords, armour, gratings and countless other artefacts.
The hammer mills, predecessors of modern machines, built on so many of the waterways in the valleys of Brescia, are now museum pieces, but long ago the master forgers were the true artists of iron deformation The material was heated in coal forges and skilfully beaten again and again to obtain increasingly complex artefacts for agriculture and everyday use.
Now the metallurgical technician has taken the place of the master forger, electric furnaces have replaced the coal forges and instead of the hammer there are sophisticated computer-controlled presses.
But the basic procedure is always the same the steel is made malleable and plastic by being brought to a high temperature and is then pressed into moulds to obtain increasingly sophisticated and precise pieces.
Bertoloni & Botturi with the most modern plants, is one of the leading companies in hot steel forging.
Reduction in costs and raw material requirements with electric upsetting.
Electro-upsetting is an evolutionary phase of forging preparation, it involves heating the bar via electric conduction, while pressing, to accumulate a sufficient volume of material to obtain the desired shape in the mould.
This operation gives specific shapes and dimensions to materials,
exploiting their plastic properties when they are heated. The aptitude of a material
to plastic processing is called formability, it concerns not only
the ability of the material to deform without breakage, but also the extent of resistance that the material opposes to deformation.